Estudio: Children Born Through Reproductive Donation: A Longitudinal Study of Psychological Adjustment (2013)

Background

Parenting and children’s adjustment were examined in 30 surrogacy families, 31 egg donation families, 35 donor insemination families, and 53 natural conception families.

Methods

Parenting was assessed at age 3 by a standardized interview designed to assess quality of parenting and by questionnaire measures of anxiety, depression and marital quality. Children’s adjustment was assessed at ages 3, 7 and 10 using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ).
Results

Although children born through reproductive donation obtained SDQ scores within the normal range, surrogacy children showed higher levels of adjustment difficulties at age 7 than children conceived by gamete donation. Mothers who had kept their child’s origins secret showed elevated levels of distress. However, maternal distress had a more negative impact on children who were aware of their origins.
Conclusions

The absence of a gestational connection to the mother may be more problematic for children than the absence of a genetic link.

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Vientres de alquiler: violación del derecho a la salud materna y primal.

Autora: Ana Trejo Pulido

Mujer, madre y feminista, extremeña, licenciada en C.C. P.P. y Sociología, experta en Divulgación y Cultura Científica. Creadora de “Stop Vientres de Alquiler” y del blog “El Nido en la Plaza”.


Introducción

Como mujer, hija, madre y feminista no tendría mucho que decir ante esta barbaridad de los vientres de alquiler que nos están metiendo por los ojos como un problema de actualidad, cuando los problemas reales de la maternidad son otros, son los que vivimos las mujeres que somos madres, o las que no los somos, porque no queremos, o porque queremos y no podemos en este mundo horrible que hemos construido. El problema de la maternidad desde luego no es el de los ricos que quieren comprar criaturas.

No diría mucho sobre este tema, más que, igual que no se mata, no se viola, no se agrede… no se pueden comprar niños y no se puede explotar sexual-reproductivamente a las mujeres para satisfacer yo que sé qué deseos, porque ¿acaso a esta mierda se le puede llamar deseo de paternidad/maternidad?, ¿dónde se quebró ese deseo de paternidad/maternidad convirtiéndose en algo que implica el ejercicio de la violencia sobre el origen de la vida?

El deseo legítimo de tener criaturas se quebró seguramente en el mismo espacio oscuro de la (des)humanidad, dónde el deseo y el placer sexual quedó enterrado bajo la pulsión de dominación, subyugación, violencia.

Las mujeres no parimos “algo”, parimos a “alguien”. Puedes comprar algo, pero no puedes comprar a “alguien”. Punto.

Diría sólo esto, pero para una charla puede quedar corto, por eso, para las Jornadas organizadas por la Red Feminista de Extremadura en las que participé el pasado 18 de junio, preparé una argumentación más extensa contra la práctica de los vientres de alquiler apoyándome en el trabajo de personas cuyas aportaciones a este debate me han “tocado” el alma, y que además se asientan sobre una profunda reflexión, así como sobre la evidencia científica en torno a la gestación y al parto. Cosas que las madres ya sabemos o intuimos.

He tratado de dar un enfoque centrado en destacar, el valor del origen materno de la vida, sobre el que creo somos todos muy ignorantes como sociedad; y la vulneración del derecho a la salud maternal y primal que implica esta práctica. Derechos que por cierto, en general, también ignoramos, por lo que es tremendamente fácil que asumamos como legítima una violencia para otros, que ya asumimos para nosotras mismas y nuestras criaturas.

6 de julio de 2017.


Reflexionaré sobre los vientres de alquiler centrándome en las consecuencias de esta práctica en la salud y el bienestar de las mujeres y los bebés; y por tanto, en la salud y bienestar de la humanidad. Analizaré tres cuestiones fundamentales ligadas a la maternidad subrogada y su impacto en la salud; entendida la salud desde una perspectiva amplia, como un estado completo de bienestar físico, mental y social:

  • La cosificación y mercantilización de las mujeres y los bebés así gestados.
  • La explotación sexual reproductiva de las mujeres gestantes.
  • La violación del derecho a la salud sexual y reproductiva de las mujeres, y la violación del derecho a la salud primal de las criaturas.

Sigue leyendo “Vientres de alquiler: violación del derecho a la salud materna y primal.”

Estudio: Commercial Surrogacy: A Contested Terrain in the Realm of Rights & Justice (2016)

Commercial surrogacy has emerged in recent years as a
volatile site in the encounter among gender, technology, and
society; one that is blurring the boundaries not just of the
body, but also of feminist praxis. In India, a country that has
become a favoured global destination for low-cost, high-tech
reproductive tourism, the practice of commercial surrogacy
is generating polarised representations: either as a win-
win situation or a race-to-the-bottom. Given the extreme
vulnerabilities of a vast majority of poor Indian women due
to exclusion and marginalisation in labour and job markets,
patriarchal social and family structures, and low educational
levels, the immediate financial gain through surrogacy assumes
significant motivation. Though the fertility market is based on
the principles of capitalist economy, its wider ramification both
within the country and beyond is yet to unfold. Commercial
surrogacy needs to be analysed along the lines of women’s
reproductive health issues, and within the larger context of
rights and justice.

Estudio: Babies without Borders: Human Rights, Human Dignity and the Regulation of International Commercial Surrogacy (2012)

Yasmine Ergas
Institute for the Study of Human Rights, Columbia University

In recent decades, a robust international market in commercial reproductive surrogacy has emerged. But, as German citizens Jan Balaz and Susan Lohle discovered when they struggled to engineer the last-minute diplomatic compromise that saved their commissioned twins from becoming wards of the Indian state, conflicts among legal frameworks have placed the children born at risk of being “marooned, stateless and parentless.” States have tried to address the individual dramas through ad hoc solutions – issuing emergency entry documents for children caught at borders or compelling administrative authorities to recognize birth certificates related to surrogacy arrangements that run counter to domestic public policies. The inadequacy of such approaches has become increasingly evident. As a result, states have developed national legislation and, together with international institutions and civil society networks, begun to seek international agreements. Indeed, international coordination represents the only viable solution to the individual dramas and diplomatic crises that have characterized the market in international commercial surrogacy. But will that be possible? This article explores whether and to what extent, a coordinated approach is likely to be found, and the role and limits of international law.

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Estudio: El régimen de subrogación en los Estados miembros de la UE (2013)

Este estudio, realizado en 2013 a petición de la Comisión de Asuntos Jurídicos del Parlamento Eurpeo, ofrece una visión preliminar de la amplia gama de cuestiones políticas relativas a la subrogación como una práctica a nivel nacional, europeo y mundial. Analiza detenidamente los enfoques jurídicos nacionales relacionados con la subrogación. También analiza el Derecho de la Unión Europea existente y la legislación de la Convención Europea de Derechos Humanos para determinar cuáles son las obligaciones y posibilidades que rodean a la subrogación nacional y transnacional. El estudio concluye que es imposible indicar una tendencia legal en particular a través de la UE, aunque todos los Estados miembros parecen estar de acuerdo en la necesidad del menor de disponer de unos padres legales y un estatus civil claramente definidos.

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Descargar resumen en español.

Estudio: Surrogate Motherhood: A violation of the human rights (2012)

REPORT PRESENTED AT THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE, STRASBOURG, ON 26 APRIL 2012

This Report has been elaborated as an answer to current attempts to obtain the legalization or normalization of the practice of surrogacy motherhood through the drafting of a Recommendation on the rights and legal status of children and parental responsibilities, and through the case law of the European Court of Human Rights.

The commodification of the human body has been drawn into sharp focus over the last several years as issues such as human trafficking for organs and sexual servitude have gained international attention. Unfortunately, another form of trafficking has evaded the same level of attention and outrage of the international community: surrogacy motherhood. Surrogacy motherhood is a commodification of the human person: the child becomes the mere object of a convention, while the surrogate mother is used as an incubator. Such commodification in itself violates the dignity of both the surrogate mother and the child.

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Estudio: An ethnomethodological approach to examine exploitation in the context of capacity, trust and experience of commercial surrogacy in India (2013)

By Sheela Saravanan.

The socio-ethical concerns regarding exploitation in commercial surrogacy are premised on asymmetric vulnerability and the commercialization of women’s reproductive capacity to suit individualistic motives. In examining the exploitation argument, this article reviews the social contract theory that describes an individual as an ‘economic man’ with moral and/or political motivations to satisfy individual desires. This study considers the critique by feminists, who argue that patriarchal and medical control prevails in the surrogacy contracts. It also explores the exploitative dynamics amongst actors in the light of Baier’s conceptualization of trust and human relationship, within which both justice and exploitation thrive, and Foucault’s concept of bio-power. Drawing on these concepts, this paper aims to investigate the manifestations of exploitation in commercial surrogacy in the context of trust, power and experiences of actors, using a case study of one clinic in India. The actors’ experiences are evaluated at different stages of the surrogacy process: recruitment, medical procedures, living in the surrogate home, bonding with the child and amongst actors, financial dealings, relinquishment and post-relinquishment.

This study applies ethnomethodology to identify phenomena as perceived by the actors in a situation, giving importance to their interpretations of the rules that make collective activity possible. The methods include semi-structured interviews, discussions, participant observation and explanation of the phenomena from the actors’ perspectives. Between August 2009 and April 2010, 13 surrogate mothers (SMs), 4 intended parents (IPs) and 2 medical practitioners (MPs) from one clinic in Western India were interviewed.

This study reveals that asymmetries of capacity amongst the MPs, SMs, IPs and surrogate agents (SAs) lead to a network of trust and designation of powers through rules, bringing out the relevance of Baier’s conceptualization of asymmetric vulnerability, trust and potential exploitation in human relationships. The IPs are exploited, especially in monetary terms. The SMs are relatively the most exploited, given their vulnerability. Their remuneration through surrogacy is significant for them, and their acquired knowledge as ex-surrogates is used for their own benefit and for exploiting others. Foucault’s conceptualization of power is hence relevant, since the ex-SMs re-invest the power of their exploitative experience in exploiting others.

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A Comparative Study on the Regime of Surrogacy in EU Member States

While surrogacy is not a new reproductive practice, it is commonly accepted that it is an increasingly prevalent phenomenon. Recent reports have documented a rise in the practice of surrogacy, to include arrangements that cross national borders. Precise statistics relating to surrogacy are, however, hard to estimate. This is for a number of key reasons. First, traditional surrogacy does not necessarily require medical intervention and can thus be arranged on an informal basis between the parties concerned. Second, although gestational surrogacy does require medical intervention, officially reported statistics do not necessarily record the surrogacy arrangement but often only the IVF procedure. 3 Third, in many countries there is simply no legal provision, regulation or licensing regime for either fertility treatment and/or surrogacy, to include commercial surrogacy in countries where such is not otherwise legally prohibited. This means that there are no formal reporting mechanisms, which can lead to a rather ad hoc collection of statistics by individual organisations, if indeed they are available at all. Finally, in countries where surrogacy is legally prohibited, those involved could potentially face criminal prosecution, thus exacerbating the difficulties of collecting relevant and accurate data.

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