El altruismo en los vientres de alquiler no existe: Canadá y Reino Unido confirman la teoría

Autor: Ander Cortázar

Canadá y Reino Unido, ejemplos de que el altruismo en los vientres de alquiler no existe

El hecho de que en Canadá se permita, únicamente, la gestación subrogada (¿eufemismo?) con fines altruistas hace que el número de candidatas a gestante sea muy escaso. Es una afirmación que hace Babygest, la revista española especializada en vientres de alquiler y referencia para aquellos que quieren ser padres por esta vía. La consecuencia: miles de canadienses buscan ‘hijos’ en el extranjero. Sigue leyendo “El altruismo en los vientres de alquiler no existe: Canadá y Reino Unido confirman la teoría”

How Commercial Surrogacy Became a Massive International Business

In 2015, India, Nepal, Thailand, and Mexico—nearly all the major markets for commercial surrogacy—banned the practice for foreigners. But the global demand isn’t going anywhere.

Outsourcing Embryos, investigates the multi-billion dollar industry of gestational surrogacy in India.

Watch the episode: Outsourcing Embryos

When Rhonda and Gerry Wile had a baby boy in 2009, they did it the new old-fashioned way: with a surrogate. Fertility complications had left the couple in Arizona with few options other than to seek an egg donor and a surrogate, but they quickly learned they were priced out of the market in America, where surrogacy fees can easily soar beyond $100,000 in the seven states where it’s legal. So they did what many western couples do: They went to India.

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Estudio: Commercial Surrogacy: A Contested Terrain in the Realm of Rights & Justice (2016)

Commercial surrogacy has emerged in recent years as a
volatile site in the encounter among gender, technology, and
society; one that is blurring the boundaries not just of the
body, but also of feminist praxis. In India, a country that has
become a favoured global destination for low-cost, high-tech
reproductive tourism, the practice of commercial surrogacy
is generating polarised representations: either as a win-
win situation or a race-to-the-bottom. Given the extreme
vulnerabilities of a vast majority of poor Indian women due
to exclusion and marginalisation in labour and job markets,
patriarchal social and family structures, and low educational
levels, the immediate financial gain through surrogacy assumes
significant motivation. Though the fertility market is based on
the principles of capitalist economy, its wider ramification both
within the country and beyond is yet to unfold. Commercial
surrogacy needs to be analysed along the lines of women’s
reproductive health issues, and within the larger context of
rights and justice.

Algunos argumentos en contra de los vientres de alquiler

Por Beatriz Gimeno

Y digo bien, “vientres de alquiler”, porque gestación subrogada es otra cosa y hay que dejar bien claro cuando hablamos de ésta y cuando hablamos de lo otro. Una de las cuestiones en las que los defensores de los vientres utilizan de manera más evidente la manipulación es esta: mezclar ambos conceptos. Es una confusión interesada, claro.

En primer lugar, ni los vientres ni la gestación son una “técnica reproductiva”. Llamar técnica reproductiva a un embarazo de nueve meses con su parto correspondiente, con sus correspondientes implicaciones corporales y psicológicas, las que ocurren durante el embarazo y el parto, y las que van más allá de estos, (los cambios que son para siempre, las posibles depresiones, los estados emocionales cambiantes, las posibles complicaciones etc.) es banalizar el trabajo reproductivo de las mujeres hasta límites insoportables. Un embarazo y un parto, así como el nacimiento de los bebés, no son técnicas, a no ser que nosotras seamos vasijas; son siempre relaciones sociales, de un tipo o de otro, pero son relaciones sociales. La técnica puede ser la manera en que se produce dicho embarazo pero nunca éste, ni el parto, ni el nacimiento de un bebé ni la manera en que este pasa a formar parte de la sociedad en la que nace.

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Estudio: An ethnomethodological approach to examine exploitation in the context of capacity, trust and experience of commercial surrogacy in India (2013)

By Sheela Saravanan.

The socio-ethical concerns regarding exploitation in commercial surrogacy are premised on asymmetric vulnerability and the commercialization of women’s reproductive capacity to suit individualistic motives. In examining the exploitation argument, this article reviews the social contract theory that describes an individual as an ‘economic man’ with moral and/or political motivations to satisfy individual desires. This study considers the critique by feminists, who argue that patriarchal and medical control prevails in the surrogacy contracts. It also explores the exploitative dynamics amongst actors in the light of Baier’s conceptualization of trust and human relationship, within which both justice and exploitation thrive, and Foucault’s concept of bio-power. Drawing on these concepts, this paper aims to investigate the manifestations of exploitation in commercial surrogacy in the context of trust, power and experiences of actors, using a case study of one clinic in India. The actors’ experiences are evaluated at different stages of the surrogacy process: recruitment, medical procedures, living in the surrogate home, bonding with the child and amongst actors, financial dealings, relinquishment and post-relinquishment.

This study applies ethnomethodology to identify phenomena as perceived by the actors in a situation, giving importance to their interpretations of the rules that make collective activity possible. The methods include semi-structured interviews, discussions, participant observation and explanation of the phenomena from the actors’ perspectives. Between August 2009 and April 2010, 13 surrogate mothers (SMs), 4 intended parents (IPs) and 2 medical practitioners (MPs) from one clinic in Western India were interviewed.

This study reveals that asymmetries of capacity amongst the MPs, SMs, IPs and surrogate agents (SAs) lead to a network of trust and designation of powers through rules, bringing out the relevance of Baier’s conceptualization of asymmetric vulnerability, trust and potential exploitation in human relationships. The IPs are exploited, especially in monetary terms. The SMs are relatively the most exploited, given their vulnerability. Their remuneration through surrogacy is significant for them, and their acquired knowledge as ex-surrogates is used for their own benefit and for exploiting others. Foucault’s conceptualization of power is hence relevant, since the ex-SMs re-invest the power of their exploitative experience in exploiting others.

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Outsourcing pregnancy: a visit to India’s surrogacy clinics

Julie Bindel, a strident opponent of surrogacy, travelled to India to find out more about a practice worth an estimated £690m a year on the subcontinen.

In Ahmedabad, Gujarat, my driver is looking for one of the city’s IVF clinics. We turn on to a busy main road and I spot a sign on a crumbling wall reading “test tube babies”.

I climb the filthy stairwell and enter a small, dark reception area. In the adjoining room I spot a hospital stretcher and shelves full of metal petri dishes, forceps and hypodermic needles. Dr Rana* leads me into a windowless office.

Before we even sit down, he is telling me about a change in India’s surrogacy policy. In October last year, the government told fertility clinics to stop all surrogate embryo transfers to foreigners.

The move follows a proposed change in the law that would limit surrogacy to Indian couples, or where at least one of the commissioning parents has an Indian passport and residency. Having established that neither I nor the woman posing as my husband’s sister own an Indian passport, Rana advises me to go to Thailand. It is selfish to have a surrogate baby Julie Bindel.
“It costs twice the price [that it does] here,” says Rana, “but they will even do sex selection, so many people will go from India.” Having heard many stories about how commonplace outsourcing pregnancy and reproduction is, I am in India to investigate the country’s “rent-a-womb” industry.

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